Glossary of Terms

Bioaccumulation

The gradual accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost by catabolism and excretion.

BioBased Lubricant

Lubricant that is derived from renewable and biodegradable base stocks from plant or animal sources.

 

Biodegradability

The capacity of a material to decompose over time as a result of biological activity, especially to be broken down by microorganisms.

Biodegradable Lubricant

Non-petroleum, natural ester and synthetic ester base oils which are minimally toxic that are combined with special additives that give them their desired lubrication properties while exhibiting greater than 60 % biodegradability

 

Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EAL)

Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants or EALs are lubricants that are biodegradable and minimally toxic, and are not bioaccumulative – as defined in Appendix A of the 2013 VGP.

Hydraulic Environmental PAO (polyalphaolefins) (HEPR)

A biodegradable hydraulic fluid which uses polyalphaolefins and related hydrocarbons as the base fluid. These base stocks are synthesized from crude oil derivatives.

Hydraulic Environmental Triglyceride (HETG)

A biodegradable, water insoluble triglyceride derived from plant or animal oils – with soy and canola being the most common sources.

Hydraulic Environmental PAO (polyalphaolefins) (HEPR)

A biodegradable hydraulic fluid which uses polyalphaolefins and related hydrocarbons as the base fluid. These base stocks are synthesized from crude oil derivatives.

 

 

Hydraulic Environmental Triglyceride (HETG)

A biodegradable, water insoluble triglyceride derived from plant or animal oils – with soy and canola being the most common sources.

Hydraulic Environmental Fire Resistant Esters (HFDU)

A biodegradable , fire resistant hydraulic fluid according to ISO 12922, which uses natural esters as the base fluid.

Inherently Biodegradable

At least 20% biodegradable according to OECD 301B.

Lubricity

The measure of the reduction in friction and or wear by a lubricant.

Minimally Toxic / Low Toxicity Lubricants

According to EPA 800-R-11-002 to pass OECD 201 & 202 for acute toxicity, must be at least 100mg/L for hydraulic fluids and 1000mg/L for greases, two-stroke oils, & all other total loss lubricants.

Natural Ester Base Oil

Oil derived from plant based sources and used because of it’s renewability, biodegradability, minimal toxicity, and natural lubricity.

Non-Bioaccumulative Lubricant

A lubricant is considered not potentially bioaccumulative if one of the following conditions is met: it has a molar mass greater than 800 g/mol or a molecular diameter greater than 1.5 nm; it has a log Kow less than 3 or greater than 7; or it has a measured BCF less than 100 L/Kg (European Commission, 2004).

OECD 301B

Is an aerobic biodegradation test standard that introduces a material to an inoculum in a closed environment and measures biodegradation of the material by CO2 evolution.

PAO

Polyalphaolefin is by far the most common major synthetic base oil used in industrial and automotive lubricants. It is a synthetic hydrocarbon (SHC) that mimics the best hydrocarbon (branched) structure found in mineral oils. PAOs are used extensively in automotive fluids as well as hydraulic, gear and bearing oils, working in extremely cold climates or hot applications. They are also employed as base fluids in some wide temperature range greases. Polyalphaolefins also have poor fire resistance and biodegradability.

Readily Biodegradable

Greater than 60 % biodegradable within 28 days according to OECD 301B.

Synthetic Ester

Synthetic Esters fall into API category Group V fluids. These esters are synthesized through reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Group V base oils are defined by API as any other type of oil other than mineral oils or PAO lubricants.

Sheen Free Lubricant

Lubricant that contains special additives to disperse oil spilled on water rather than remaining on the water column surface as a sheen. This also encourages a more rapid biodegradation of the oil if it is a biobased lubricant.

Shear Stability

Is a measure of the resistance of an oil to change in viscosity, caused by the oil being subjected to mechanical stress or shear. The result of this mechanical stress is a reduction in viscosity, or thinning.

USDA Bio Preferred Program

Managed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the goal of the BioPreferred Program is to increase the purchase and use of biobased products. The BioPreferred Program was created by the 2002 Farm Bill and reauthorized and expanded as part of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (the 2014 Farm Bill). The program’s purpose is to spur economic development, create new jobs and provide new markets for farm commodities. The increased development, purchase, and use of biobased products reduces our nation’s reliance on petroleum, increases the use of renewable agricultural resources, and contributes to reducing adverse environmental and health impacts.

Vessel General Permit (VGP)

On 19 December 2013, the revised Vessel General Permit (VGP) was issued by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States of America. The VGP mandates the use of Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EALs) in all oil-to-water interfaces (e.g. stern tube seals, thruster seals) on all merchant vessels of 79 feet or longer that are sailing in US coastal and inland waters – unless technically infeasible.

Viscosity

Is a measure of the internal friction of a fluid. It is the most important physical property of a fluid in the context of lubrication. The viscosity of a lubricant varies with temperature and pressure and, in some cases, with the rate at which it is sheared.

Viscosity Index (VI)

Is an arbitrary, unitless measure of the change of viscosity with temperature, mostly used to characterize the viscosity-temperature behavior of lubricating oils. The lower the VI, the more the viscosity is affected by changes in temperature.

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